Updated: Apr 13
Guide to support Ulysses.
Red = Various languages used and It’s translation
Orange = Word description
- = Guided Plot
Buck Mulligan: Buck is Stephens “friend”, but a jerk, sarcastic asshole. A usurper of Stephen. Modeled after Oliver St. John Gogarty. Joyce had stayed in the location this book takes starts with Gogarty. Stephen is paying for the rent in Martello Tower, but Buck asks for the key, like he owns the place. Joyce wanted to model Mulligan after Gogarty as he wanted to place Gogarty in negative light in history. It was his ultimate stab.
Haines: Is a British student. He represents Britain and the usurping of Ireland. He is an acquaintance of Mulligan and is staying with them in the tower.
Milk Woman: Is an old Irish lady. She represents Ireland and what is wrong with it. The lady cannot speak Irish, but this is her home for her entire life. She was usurped by the British.
Martello Tower - There were many towers built around the shores of Ireland during the French Revolution. They were built as defense to protect the island. Joyce stayed at this tower for some time and it is modeled from his experience. This Martello Tower now houses the Joyce Museum.
June 16th, 1904:
Buck stands at the top of Martello Tower and starts his scene of a mock catholic mass. “Stately, plump Buck Mulligan” The famous opening lines. Stately meaning dignified. Plump, poking fun.
I did not grow up religious, so Joyce’s references to religion are all new to me. It has been quite fun reading into them and the way he portrays them. This may be only my opinion, but since Joyce talks about Exile so much, I believe he wanted to separate from the church as well or poke fun at this as well.
Odyssey: Invocation (wise words) of a muse, followed by council of the gods on Mt. Olympus. Zeus decides it is time of Odysseus to return home. Ithaca: Telemachus (Odysseus’ son) dreaming of his fathers return. He is unhappy and betrayed by suitors trying to take his mother, Penelope’s hand. The suitors are arrogant. They are led by Antinous. They mock Zeus and plot Telemachus’ death and the murder of Odysseus upon his arrival home. Back on Mt. Olympus Athena supports Odysseus.
Ireland-Telemachus-Hamlet = Stephen
Antinous = Buck
Mentor-Athena = Milk Woman
Colors: White and Gold
Stanley Plump Buck Mulligan Pg. 1
All in the introductory paragraph Joyce parodies the Catholic Mass. Buck is carrying a bowl of shaving lather, representing the priests chalice, that contains Christ’s blood during mass. This is the symbol of communion between God and men. There is a crossed mirror and a razor laying on top, representing the cross. Buck is also wearing a yellow dressing gown, ungirdled (un-priestly). Yellow being the liturgical color, gold. Gold was worn during Easter and Christmas, symbolizing the birth and resurrection of Jesus Christ. But yellow is the color of degradation, jealousy, treason, and deceit.
Latin. “Introibo ad altare Dei. (I will go up to the alter of god). This seems to be a common saying during a Catholic Mass, but I love the way Joyce uses multiple languages in his work. Bringing all of the world, all of the people into his work. Unifying us as one.
Buck continues and you getting a feeling of his arrogance. He is mocking a catholic mass. Pretending to bless his surroundings and making crosses in the air. He calls Stephen, Kinch, the knife blade.
Fearful - uncompromising group - very serious.
Jesuit - members of the society of Jesus
Buck calls Stephen Dedalus up to the top of the tower.
Buck continues mack mass, blesses the tower, the mountains, and Stephen.
Stephen describes Buck’s face as long like a horse. (Equine in length)
Buck, in playful blasphemy, peaks under the mirror covering the bowl quickly.
Crysostomos Pg. 2
Buck continues to mock a mass.
We start to see the first inner thoughts of Stephen show themselves in the book.
Chrysostomos - golden mouthed (greek) - Stephens thoughts tell us that Buck had bad teeth.
Buck talks to god and asks him for “A little trouble those white corpuscles (inject electricity in his cup) and later states “switch of the current”
Whistles are used to represent the calling of god, and bells in congregation.
Stephen sees Pope Alexander VI in Buck. “The plump shadowed face and sullen oval jaw”. Pope Alexander VI - Patron of Arts - Middle Ages.
Buck states the mockery in Stephens name; Ironic as Stephen = Christian Martyr and Dedalus = greek for cunning artificer.
Parapet - step near a wall
Buck states his name is absurd too. Malachi Mulligan.
Two dactyls - 1 stressed syllable + 2 unstressed
Hellenic - Greek
Quid - $
Buck invites Stephen to Athens Greece if his aunt could fork our some money.
Malachi = my messenger (Hebrew)
Jejune Jesuit Pg. 3
Jejune - Naive, simplistic, superficial
Introduction of Haines, Stephen has a problem with him. Conflict is established.
Haines - la haine - Hate (French)
Saxon - Foreigner - English in this case
Buck and Stephen agree that Haines is a dreadful Saxon who feels full of himself. Stephen is curious how long Haines will by staying with them.
Black panther dream discussed, worried about his gun, modeled after real events in the tower. Joyce and Gogarty.
“If he stays here I am off” - Odyssey Telemachus leaves to find his father.
Scutter - Irish idiom (runny poo) crap in my mind or bustling about
Noserag - handkerchief
Usurp moment - Buck asks Stephen to loan him his noserag and takes it from Stephens pocket without approval.
Snotgreen + Scrotumtightening Sea Pg. 4
Bard - poet
Buck uses Stephens handkerchief and reflects over Dublin.
Irish revival movement at this time, Buck presents them (the artist), in his mind, with a gift, new color of Snotgreen.
Describes the sea as snot green and scrotumtightening (cold)
Algy (Algemon Charles Swinburne) Victorian poet, calls the sea a grey sweet mother.
From this point forward sweet mother represents the sea.
Epioinopa ponton - Upon the win colored sea (Greek) - Odyssey reference
Thalatta! Thalatta! - The Sea! The Sea! (Greek)
Our mighty mother - Algy reference x2 or George William Russell
Buck lets us know that Stephen’s mother just died and his aunt thinks Stephen, refusing to pray, made her die faster. His mother asked him to pray and he refused.
Stephen responds with “Someone killed her” - meaning god is responsible.
Hyperborean - Nietzsche - Free from christian ethics (Übermensch)
Superman “above the crowd” not enslaved by conformity. Living for others, makes you weak.
Notes: I love the connection to Dublin here. So much history and calm into the explanation of the sea. Specifically tied to Dublin. I feel so many things are looked over that this focus on the landmark sea is calling and full of peace.
Etiquette is Etiquette Pg. 5
Second showing of inner thoughts as Stephen thinks about his mother, recollecting the scene of her death. Referencing his current surrounding to that of his mothers death bed. Green mass in sea like the green bile of his mother.
Dogsbody - British stand - bottom of the pecking order
Breeks - britches/pants/trousers slang
Bowsy - bowsey - stand - unemployed cat caller
Buck offers to give Stephen a shirt and a few noserags. Stephen picked up second hand pants.
I believe this represents Stephen by being an orphan, in search of a father figure.
“I can’t wear them if they are grey” This statement is ironic as Stephens mother begged him to pray as she died. He refused, refused etiquette, but still won’t wear pants that are grey due to common etiquette. He wears black as he is in mourning. Buck mocks this and calls him out.
Stephen follows the black wearing in mourning etiquette due to Hamelt. Hamlet insists on wearing black long after everyone else when his father passes.
Green is referenced twice, this represents Ireland and the green polluted mass in the sea.
As He And Others See Me Pg. 6
GPI - General Paralysis of the insane Tertiary Syphilis
Dottyville - Housed Richmond lunatic asylum
Connolly Norman - superintendent of the asylum
Mulligan explains a gentleman he was with at the ship (Pub) believes Stephen has GPI
Mulligan continues to mock the church with motions in the air to flash the tidings. Moving the mirror in a half circle to reflect light all around. Would be a signal of the tidings.
Tidings - News - Something to say
Stephen looks at himself in the mirror, in his conscience: “as he and others see me”. Stephen selects deep on his physical appearance hinting the exterior is not all of who he is.
Skivvy - Stand for female servant / house keeper.
Buck explains he stole the mirror from his housekeeper.
Stephen reflects on the lords prayer. “Lead him not into temptation” Paler Noster. Stephen thinking about Bucks desire for previous housekeeps, his aunt only hires the plain ones now. New one is names Ursula (devoted to virginity & 3rd century martyr)
“The rage of the Caliban at not seeing his face in the mirror” - Oscar Wilde poem - “The 19th century dislike of realism is the rage of Caliban seeing his face in glass / The 19th century dislike of Romanticism is the rage…
Caliban - Shakespeares evil brute
Joyce is using his knowledge of Shakespeare & Oscar Wilde to explain a feeling /emotion of how Stephen feels for Buck. Comparing Buck to Caliban - an evil brute. This shows the tangents the mind goes off on linking thoughts together by reference objects (Mirror - think reflections, think statement of Wilde, compares a brute monster back to Buck.
Stephen defends the mirror as a piece of Irish art. “The cracked looking glass of a servant”. Knowledge of M.H. Abrams - Study of Mirror are a symbol of Art & Oscar Wilde.
Buck links Stephens arm. This initiates thoughts that Stephen radiates paternal need that he is lost and looking for guidance in life.
Joyce flexes his literary intelligence muscles - proves he is an intellectual.
Omphalos Pg. 7
Stephen thinks of Buck and his relationship; anything but friendly.
Buck explains how Haines has money. Stephen locked arms with Buck and this flashes him back to Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and his friend Cranly - The relationship ended badly.
Buck is curious what Stepheen doesn’t trust him. Stephen recalls a hazing incident of Clive K, an old classmate.
Seymour - Unknown reference
To ourselves… new paganism… omphalos
Paleface - Irish slang for English Folk
Grasshelms - stems of grass
Sinn Fein - We Ourselves (Irish) - Motto for Irish language revival, Irish literary revival.
New Paganism - cultivation of the Irish Aesthetic
Omphalos - naval (Greek) - theorized as the place of the “Astral soul of man”, the center of self consciousness and source of poetic and prophetic inspiration.
Of The Offense To Me - Pgs. 8 & 9
Buck asks Stephen to accept Haines stating with them. Buck asks Stephen what his issue is with him (Buck).
Love the quote “I only remember ideas and sensations.” I feel this can get deep. As in what do we really remember. Later in the book, Stephen thinks about how much of history is skewed by memory. Ones perception can change the course of history forever. No one perception is the same or correct. So which is true?
Stephen removes him arm from Bucks (Independence)
Stephen starts to explain his issue with Buck
“O, it’s only Dedalus whose mother is beastly dead.
Asks the harm in that?
Bray Head - the land rises 791’ above the shoreline, 7 miles south
Mater - Mater Hospital
Richmond - Richmond Lunatic Asylum
Lalouette’s - Dublin mortuary that offered mute services, these are hired mourners.
Buck states it’s only death which he sees everyday at the hospital, hinting at his career path.
Buck takes a stab at Stephen and his jesuit education and tells him he is absurd for not praying for his mother.
Stephen explains he feels offended, not his mother.
Joyce artfully describes adrenaline and intense anger as: “The sea and headland grew dim. Pulses were beating in his eyes, veiling their sight, and he felt the fever of his cheeks.”
Haines calls up for Mulligan.
Moody Brooding - Pg. 10
Sassenach - Irish for English conquerer
Moody brooding - moping (Antinous speech in Odyssey) “Come on get over it, no more grim thoughts”
Buck tells Stephen not to mope as he goes down the stairs proclaiming a poem.
He starts to recollect singing the song to his mother.
Tasseled dancecards - men used to ask for the privilege of a dance from a lady. His initials would go on her dancemcard to cement his turn.
He starts to describe the scene of his mothers room on her deathbed.
No Mother. Let Me Be And Let Me Live - Pg. 11
Gaud of amber beads - showy rosary
Royce - Edward William Royce - Improvisation actor. Played “Turko the terrible”
Stephens thoughts continue to take us through his mothers room.
Stephen starts to narrate a dream where she has come to him.
His mother is holding him back from living the way he wills
Liliata rutiliantium te confessore turma circumdet: iubilantium te virginum chorus exipiata - may the glittering throng of confessors, bright as lilies, gather about you. May the glorious choir of virgins receive you (Prayers for the dying)
Ghoul! Chewer of corpses! Stephen says to the priest who is chanting. The alchemy of this imagination, his mother has changed from dead body to a monster who feeds on dead bodies.
Let me be and let me live - Hamlet’s mother urges him to give up mourning his fathers death - resentment.
In the Odyssey Telemachus surprises Penelope by trying to take the reigns and orders her to her chamber. Mother - Son relationship.
On Coronation Day - Pg. 12
Buck calls to Stephen and snaps him from his memory but he is still trembling.
Stephen heard “warm running sunlight”. It seems the sun represents a feeling or tone to the story. A shift from depressing thoughts to a more positive note.
Mosey - Stand for wanderer, slow walking, or idiot/fool
Buck explains that Haines is apologizing for waking them the night before.
Usurping - Buck asks Stephen to give them money, 1/4 of his pay. And introduces us to Stephens line of work. Stephen works at a school. Buck wants to have drinks on Stephens hard earned money.
Druids - Powerful influential priests in pre-christian Ireland
Cockney - East London
An old Irish drinking son is sung from 1902 which was sound in the streets to the coronation of King Edward VII
Sunshines reappears - warmly representing relief of depressing thoughts. (Maybe Buck asking for money)
A Servant Of A Servant - Pg. 13
Starts with Stephens internal thoughts representing his relationship with Buck, forgotten friendship. Contemplates bringing Bucks bowl of lather in or leaving it out. Stephen observes its characteristics. And recalls a memory from boarding school while carrying (alter boy) a bowl. Similar to now he was a servant, now a servant of a servant. (Buck)
Clowngowes - Boys boarding school ran by Jesuits.
Janey Mack - Jesus Jack - Jesus Christ!
Area of the tower is described while Buck is cooking on open fire.
Barbacans - fortified outpost or gateway; outer defense of a tower.
Hammock where “it” slept - it meaning Haines.
Key - represents symbol throughout the story. Keys let access to things.
Haines asks where the key is. They open the door to let smoke out and sunlight in.
Haled - to hoist
O’ Damn You And Your Paris Fads & When I Makes Tea I Makes Tea and When I Makes Water I Makes Water - Pg. 14
After Buck is done cooking, they sit down at the table. Buck immediately makes mention to a dirt joke. “I’m melting as the candle remarked when…” in reference to being hot from cooking. This is also a joke about nuns using candles as dildos and melting them while being used as such.
O’ Jay - “Oh Jesus”
Kip - room or bed in a rooming house
They realize there is no milk, Buck is mad the milk lady is not there yet.
Buck curses Stephen for his Paris fads, drinking tea black, Buck wants his Sandy Cove (Location in Dublin) milk.
Haines announces the milk woman is coming up, Buck blesses god.
In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti - The Blessing of god on you
“When I makes tea I makes tea as old mother Grogan said. And when I makes water I makes water”confirming in fact he does make his tea strong. He makes tea right. And water, meaning urine.
She Pisses Like A Man - Pg. 15
Buck continues to go on with random saying referencing mother Grogan sayings. Referencing hoping he doesn’t make tea and water (Piss) in the same pot.
Buck lunger at Stephen and Haines with his butter knife, but went for the bread, “Impaled by his knife” reference to the Odyssey, Buck compared to Penelope’s suitors.
Folk - Irish attempt to achieve a cultural identity.
- References the work antiquarians were studying folk writing at the time. 5 lines of work equate to 10 pages of notes.
Mabinogion - Celtic legend stories - Welsh
Upanishads - Hindu spiritual texts
Fishgods of Dundrum. Nonsense folklore. Fished = formorians - giants of the sea folklore. Dundrum - East Ireland - Location of Ancient Irish Olympic Games or lunatic asylum, south of Dublin. Or Yeats sisters Pres Dun Cmer Press. Weird sister in Macbeth. Year of the big wind - Macbeth - or 1839 wind blew Irish houses down.
Kinswoman - relative
Mary Ann - Folk Song
Stephen and Buck debate where Mother Grogan originated. The song:
For old Mary Ann
She doesn’t care a damn
But, hissing up her petticoats…
She pisses like a man (Not listed in the book)
Old Shrunken Paps - Pg. 16
The milk woman enters the room. She represents the mother - giver of milk, the messenger to Stephen, Ireland forgetting/losing their roots/culture (She can’t speak Irish)
Buck jokes with her questioning god.
Buck explains the standard practice of circumcision by the Irish (Islanders)
Prepuces - Foreskin
Tilly - A little extra
Milk woman pours the milk into their jug. Stephen mentions “Not hers” meaning not from her breasts or “Old shrunken paps” as Stephen describes
Stephen day dreams about the milk woman’s day, milking cows. “Silk of kine and poor old woman” Stephen thinks. Representing “old times” and the nation that is lost. She is serving her conquerer (Haines/British) and her gay betrayer (Mulligan)
Are You A Medical Student, Sir? Pg. 17
Buck explains that the country is full of rotten teeth and guts.
Bogswamp - water logged hills that were once marshes
Buck tells us he is a medical student. Stephen thinks of Buck as a person not qualified to set bones; bonesetter. And how the milk woman looks up to Buck but down to Stephen. Stephen explains Buck will prepare the milk woman (Ireland) for the grave. Directing us to believe he wants to move away from Ireland. Since he keeps referencing greek and is fascinated by it, that he wants to turn this country into his ideal Greece.
Woman’s unclean loins - unclean due to menstruation.
Haines speaks Irish to her, yet she does not understand . Ironic as she is Irish but cannot speak it. Ireland without its own tongue.
Buck offers the milk woman tea.
Agenbite of Inwit Pg. 18 & 19
Haines asks the milk woman for the bill. Buck searches his pockets for money and was only able to come up with a florin, short of the bill and says they will pay later. He started singing a tune, they still owe her two pence.
Time enough - shows the slow rural life vs the fast paced urban like. Represents “no rush”.
Usurper - Buck turns to Stephen demanding he hurries to school so he can get paid to give them money. He reminds Stephen to do his duty, like he owes Buck.
Haines wants to visit the library, Buck says they need to swim first (bathe in the bay) Buck mentions that Stephen bathes only once a month as he is fearful of water.
Haines mentions he wants to create a book of all of Stephens sayings. Stephen wonders if Haines is motivated by guilt. British rule over Ireland?
Agenbite of Inuit - Ayenbite of Inwyt - again biting of inner wit - remorse of conscience.
Haines states he is serious about the book and tells Stephen he make some money from it. Haines exits the room.
I See Little Hope, From Her, Or From Him Pg. 20
Buck gets frustrated with asking Haines if he would make money from the book. Stephen states the problem is getting money. From whom? He doesn’t know. From the milk woman (Ireland)? Or from Haines (England)?
“I see little hope, from her (Ireland) or from him (England)
Buck reasons with Stephen and agrees while he grabs his arm again (Father figure)
Mulligan strips off his garments as Jesus was stripped by Roman soldiers and gives Stephen back his snot rag.
“God, we’ll have to dress in the character” trying to fit in with the times. Wants a price hat and green boots, idiosyncratic outfit. Associated with late 19th century esthetics (Hipsters?)
“Do I contradict myself? Very well then, I Contradict myself” - Walt Whitman
Mercurial Malachi - My Messenger (Hebrew)
Stephen puts on his latin quarter hat.
The Martello Tower Pg. 21
Haines calls for them to leave.
Mulligan implies Stephen is ill manned by eating all they have.
Buck states “And going forth he met Butterly” as they leave. “And going forth we wept bitterly” this is Biblical Peter recognizing that he has denied Jesus 3 times.
Ashplant - Ash sapling walking stick
Stephen puts the key in his pocket.
Haines asks Buck is he pays rent on the tower, 12 quid.
Introduction of the Martello tower.
Billy Pit was the prime minister who had these towers built to protect Ireland.
Buck states that this tower is the Omphalos
When the French were on the seat - supporting the Irish revolution.
Omphalos - an idea referencing a sacred stone in the temple of Delphi; fabled to mark the center of the earth, the central hub. Similar to thoughts here around this tower.
Haines asks Stephen his idea of Hamlet, but Buck asks to wait until drinks to let Stephen explain.
Thomas Aquinas - Dominican Friar - Scholastic Philosopher - created required set for Roman Catholic seminaries.
Irish Paradoxes Pg. 22
Haines is curious if Stephen’s view on Hamlet is a paradox. Paradoxes were all the rage in the 1880-90’s.
Buck states the world has grown out of Oscar Wilde and paradoxes. Summarizes that Stephen can prove that Hamlet’s grandson is Shakespeare’s grandfather by math. He, Hamlet is a ghost of his own father.
(Father theme) Hamlet is Shakespeares great great grandfather.
Mulligan mocks Stephens desire for a father.
Stephen explains it’s too early to tell his theory.
Buck says the sacred pint will loosen his lips.
Haines states the tower reminds him of Elsinore, the seat of the Danish court in Hamlet.
Horatio warns Hamlet the danger in following the ghost: “What if it tempt you toward the floor my lord/Or to the dreadful summit of the cliff/that beetles O’er (juts out over) his base into the sea”
My Mother’s A Jew, My Father’s A Bird Pgs. 23 & 24
Stephen thoughts start to describe Haines. The seas ruler as Haines is England
Haines explains he read the theological interpretation of the father and son idea.
Buck starts to chant “The Ballad Of Joking Jesus” These lines are quoted with interpretation (by Buck) From Oliver St. Gogarty’s “The Song Of The Cheerful (but slightly sarcastic) Jesus.”
“My mother’s a Jew, my father’s a bird” Buck mocking and trying to offend catholic sensitivities.
Jesus turns water into wine for a wedding feast.
Buck playfully mocks that he is going to jump of a cliff as if he had wings.
Mt Olivet - ridge in east Jerusalem where Christ was resurrected to heaven.
The forty foot hole - swimming spot by the tower
Haines calls Buck blasphemous and says they shouldn’t laugh even though he is (Haines)
Stephen isn’t amused by this silly poem and actions by Buck.
Haines opens his cigarette case, which of course had a green jewel on it, representing his dominance over Ireland.
Stephen is displeased with Haines assuming he doesn’t agree with the idea of a personal god.
It Seems History Is To Blame - Pg. 25
Ferrule - metal ring at the end of a walking stick to keep it from splitting.
Stephens stream of conscious takes over.
Thinks of his walking stick dragging in the sang, leaving a line that will be gone when they come back to the beach tonight.
He mentions the key & Buck/Haines usurping him for it, he;’s weak and knows he will give it to them, even though he is the one that paid the rent.
Stephen turns to Haines as he speaks and see’s he is not “all unkind”.
Haines believes in free thought - you are your own master.
Stephen states he has two masters - England & Roman Church.
A crazy queen - 3rd master.
It seems history is to blame - Haines feels guilty of what his country did to the Irish.
Et unam sanctum catholicam et Apostolicam ecclesiam - And in one holy catholic and apostolic church.
The Stranger - Pg. 26
Stephens thoughts run through various topics and recap the happenings this morning so far.
The stranger - British occupation of Ireland - Haines weaves the wind - Isaiah 19:9 - John Webster
Zut! Nom de Diev! - Damn! In the name of god! or For Gods Sake! (French)
Haines mentions a Jewish conspiracy that Germany has fallen in the hands of Jews and doesn’t want that to happen to England.
Five fathoms - 30 feet (1 fathom - 6 feet)
Two men observe a boat, state its going to Bullock harbor. Boat man & business man discuss the future plans of the boat and talk about news of a drowned man 9 days ago.
Usurpers Pgs. 27-29
They walked down to the creek. A young man asks Buck about his brother. The young man mentions a card from Bannon.
Sweet young thing - Blooms daughter Milly (Future character)
Mentions a person names Seymour, in dropping out of school of medicine and going into the army.
A girl who he made love (spooning) with on a pier.
Up the Pole - Pregnant but unmarried
Redheaded women buck like goats - are wild in bed
Toothless Kinch - Stephen has decaying teeth.
Give us that key Kinch - taking advantage of Stephen, he gave it over and was asked to add two pence, he gave in as well. Usurper
He who stealeth from the poor lendeth to the lord. Thus Spake Zarathustra - He that lay pity on the poor, land to the lord, rejection of Christian ethics.
Stephen leaves them and Buck reminders him to meet them at The Ship (Pub) Half 12.
As Stephen walks away he resists the prayer for the dying at his mothers bed.
Liliata rutilantium, Thurma circumdet, Jubilantium te virginium - May the troop of confessors, glowing like lilies surround you. May choir of virgins , jubilant take you in.
He knows he will not return to the tower tonight. He has no home.
He felt the sea calling him, His sweet mother.
Usurper - taking to the Odyssey, this is what Telemachus calls Antimous, Eurymachus, and all the suitors in the hall of Odysseus house trying to have his mother.
If Stephen is a version of Joyce it feels he is lacking in confidence and identity. The common theme of England taking over Ireland here shows a struggle to understand who one is. Who is one supposed to be and how is one supposed to feel? He is easily a push over and gives in. Represents how he feels about Ireland. Letting England in to control their land. And who is Stephen to let Buck, who idolizes Greece, and Haines who is British to take advantage of him. I believe we will see some growth in Stephen throughout the day. He is usurped by everyone he is with in this chapter. Buck takes him money and key. Haines didn’t really do anything to him, but since he is British, he stole everything from Stephen, and Stephen even feels the milk woman is looking down upon him as he is only a teacher and not a man of medicine like Buck.
I enjoy how Joyce portrays the depressing anger moments within Stephen. “The sea and headland grew dim. Pulses were beating in his eyes, veiling their sight, and he felt the fever of his cheeks.” And how when the sun and warmth comes all seems well. Stephen heard “warm running sunlight”
Joyce seems a bit over the top and arrogant in flexing his literary and religious muscles. He feels he is an intellectual and references so many thoughts, views and, moments from previous literary works. I am not certain many people would like Joyce in life. But in his literature, it is a different story. The many parodies of religion help educate on what religious beliefs were pressed into Joyce’s life and how he feels about them. Poking fun at religious exercises and thoughts throughout this episode.
I could see how this book was banned in the 20’s. There are many dirty, sexual references, even a few are a bit uneasy even today. The nun’s using a candle for a dildo would even make some eyes roll 100 years later.
I find pleasure in the many references to different languages throughout this episode. I have a feeling more will come further into the book. This is why I noted them in red. Hoping to collect them all and review at at later time. This could also so Joyce as arrogant. Not only is he flexing his literary muscles, here comes the language muscles.
Photo By Brandon Nicklaus
Literary Works of Interest:
Algemon Charles Swinburne - The Triumph of Time - (1866)
Friedrich Nietsche - Übermensch - (1833)
Xenophon - Anabasis - (370 BC) “Thalatta”
George William Russell - Religion and Love - (1915) “Mighty Mother”
Shakespeare - Hamlet - (1603)
Oscar Wilde - The Decay of Lying - (1891)
Robert Burns - To A Louse, on seeing one on a Lady’s Bonnet At Church - (1786) - “As He and Others See Me”
Oscar Wilde - The Picture of Dorian Gray - (1890)
Shakespeare - The Tempest - (1611)
Matthew Arnold - Culture and Anarchy - (1869) - Coined the phase “Hellenise it” Counter Culture Movement
Charles K Harris - Break the news to Mother - (1897)
John Locke - An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” - (1689) - “I only remember ideas and sensations.”
Richard & Brinsley Sheridan - School for Scandal - (1777) - Character - Sir Peter Teazle
David Hartley - Observations of Man, His Frame, His Duty, And His Expectations” - (1749) - Ideas and Sensations
W.B. Yeats - The Countless Kathleen - (1892)
W.B. Yeats - Who goes with Fergus - (1893)
W.B. Yeats - In Seven Woods - (1903) Was finished The Year Of The Big Wind.
Shakespeare - Macbeth - (1623)
Swinburne - The Ablation - (1821)
Friar Loren - Somme des Vices et Vertus - (1279)
Walt Whitman - Song of Myself - (1855)
Aristotle - Metaphysics - (350 BCE)
Frederick Marryat - Japhet, In Search For A Father - (1836)
Oliver St. Gogarty - The Song Of The Cheerful (but slightly sarcastic) Jesus - (1904)
W.B. Yeats - The Key To Theosophy - (1893)
John Webster - The Devils Law Case - (1623)
Friedrich Nietsche - Thus Spake Zarathustra - (1883)
“The Priest Chalice: A Short Guide to a Conscious Choice.” Holyart.com Blog, 12 May 2021, https://www.holyart.com/blog/religious-items/the-priest-chalice-short-guide-to-conscious-choice/.
Sector, C. (n.d.). Reading the Colors of the Vatican. ABC News. Retrieved February 2, 2022, from https://abcnews.go.com/Health/Pope/story?id=640088&page=1
Gifford, Don, and Robert J Seidman. Ulysses Annotated. Univ. California P., 1992
“The Joyce Project : Ulysses : Telemachus:. M.Joyceproject.Com, http://m.joyceproject.com/chatpers/telem.html.